Almost all of us have moles, freckles or other skin blemishes, so how do you know whether something on your skin is a harmless spot or a potentially deadly melanoma?
Check this guide to the three most common skin cancers so you know how to spot the signs.
The three types of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
This is the most common, least dangerous form of skin cancer. BCCs grow slowly, usually on the head, neck and upper torso.
They may appear as:
- a lump or dry, scaly area
- be red, pale or pearly in colour
- ulcerate as they grow
- or appear as a sore that fails to heal completely or heals but then breaks down again.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
These are less common than BCC but may spread to other parts of the body if untreated. SCCs grow over some months and appear on skin most often exposed to the sun.
They may be:
- a thickened, red, scaly spot
- bleed easily
- and ulcerate.
Melanomas can be life-threatening in as little as six weeks if left untreated and spread to other parts of the body. Melanoma can also appear on skin not typically exposed to the sun, such as your inner thigh or underarm.
Use the ABCD rule as a guide while examining your skin:
A = Asymmetry: look for spots that are asymmetrical (one half of the spot doesn’t match the other).
B = Border: look for spots with uneven borders. Melanoma is often flat with an uneven, smudgy outline.
C = Colour: look for spots with an unusual or uneven colour. May be blotchy and more than one colour – brown, black, blue, grey or red.
D = Diameter: look for spots that are larger than 7mm.
Nodular melanoma is a fast growing and aggressive form of melanoma that doesn’t follow the ABCD criteria above. It is often red, pink, brown or black and feels firm to touch. Nodular melanoma grows quickly, so see your GP immediately if you think you have one.
Checking your skin
More than 95 per cent of skin cancers can be successfully treated if they’re found early, so it’s important to get to know your skin and what is normal for you to help you notice changes quickly.
Look for changes in shape, colour, size of existing spots or the development of a new spot – if you notice anything unusual, see your doctor straight away.
People who are at high-risk of developing skin cancer should develop a surveillance plan with their GP to monitor changes in their skin, which can include regular skin checks and photography.
Find out more about checking for skin cancer